Dec 2, 2006
Here is a description of Kirriemuir's blog:
"Examples of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) games being used for curriculum-based learning. These games are designed purely for entertainment, and not for learning or teaching. By compiling these examples, we show that such games are being used in schools and colleges by teachers and other educators, as part of curriculum-based learning."
Nov 20, 2006
Speaking at the NSBA's Technology + Learning Conference Nov. 8, author and inventor Ray Kurzweil reveals what he believes technology will look like in the next decade--and he explains what the "explosive growth" in these technology developments will mean for students.
Credits: eSN TV
Runtime: 4 Minutes 4 Seconds
Note: The eSchool News Online video resource center has a variety of videoclips that highlight different aspects of technology and education. This is a great resource if you need content for presentations about technology and education! Also check out the Edutopia website!
Oct 27, 2006
Link to TechPsych Blog: Information about the MacArthur Foundation's $50 Million Digital Media and Learning Initiative, related resources
Oct 4, 2006
"Teaching with Games: A one-year project supported by Electronic Arts, Microsoft, Take-Two and ISFE Final report: Using commercial off-the-shelf computer games in formal education
By Richard Sandford, Mary Ulicsak, Keri Facer and Tim Rudd (September 2006)"
The appendix includes a summary of lesson plans.
Additional links from the FutureLab website include a literature review on the topic of games and learning, a games handbook, and the following external links:
Serious Games Interactive: www.seriousgames.dk
The Education Arcade: www.educationarcade.org
Serious Games Initiative: www.seriousgames.org
Room 130: labweb.education.wisc.edu/room130/index.htm
Games Parents Teachers: www.gamesparentsteachers.com
Department of Defense Game Developers' Community: www.dodgamecommunity.com
Games For Change: www.seriousgames.org/gamesforchange
Learning Lab Denmark - Rikke Magnussen's research on science games:www.lld.dk/consortia/learninggames/news/chi2004presentation/en
Serious games entry on Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serious_game
Oct 3, 2006
Oct 1, 2006
Unfortunately, many multimedia applications, as well as computer and console games, are not designed to facilitate access for a significant number of people. People with vision, hearing, or motor disabilities have few options available to them for playing games. People who have color-blindness, attention/memory problems, auditory processing difficulties, and/or slower visual-motor responses also face barriers when they use multimedia applications and games.
There are people who are working hard to make game technology more accessible.
The International Game Developers Association has a Game Accessibility SIG has a wiki that contains links to a variety of game access projects.
The following is a partial list of links related to game accessibility:
IDGA Game Accessibility SIG
Game Accessibility Games (links to information categorized by visual, auditory, physical, and learning disabilities)
Game Access Resources and Research
Sep 22, 2006
Take a look at this article!
Sep 18, 2006
Aug 21, 2006
The quotes were posted on the Media Literacy Clearinghouse Website. If that link does not work, try this one. The Media Literacy Clearninghouse has a variety of resources for K-12 educators.
Aug 9, 2006
Here are links to information about RippleEffects and Dimenxian, interactive multimedia applications for kids and teens.
For those of you gearing up for the new school year, read my posts on the TechPsych blog about the following applications:
Link to post on the TechPsych blog about Dimenxian, an engaging interactive 3D game for algebra. Link to post on the TechPsych blog about RippleEffects for Teens and RippleEffects for Kids, social learning and behavioral intervention software.
Aug 7, 2006
David Rose, from CAST, addressed the NCLB Commission on the importance of Universal Design for Learning(UDL). Here is the link!
CAST to NCLB Commission: There's a Way to 'Leave No Child Behind'
Chief Scientist David Rose makes case for universally designed approaches
Aug 6, 2006
Mind Habits was developed by Dr. Mark Baldwin, a social psychologist, and his colleagues at McGill University.
Visit the on-line demo of Mind Habits , which includes on-line versions of several games.
Vist Mind Habits
Aug 5, 2006
Aug 4, 2006
Convergence: Video Games and Virtual Reality for Special Needs: Autism, ADD, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Social Skills...
Aug 2, 2006
I've created a new blog, open to posts and comments. The following is from the first post:
The TechPsych blog..... is primarily for school psychologists, educational technologists, school counselors, special education teachers, transition/school to work coordinators,curriculum specialists, and others who are interested in discussing how technology can be more effectively used in schools and other environments.
A primary focus of this blog will be sharing "how to", "what works" and "lessons learned" in several overlapping areas- the topics below are only suggestions:
- The use of technology to facilitate and promote school-wide intervention and prevention planning (academic, behavior, social skills) for all students, using a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach.
- The use of technology to facilitate needs assessment, individual and larger group progress monitoring, data analysis, to ensure "data-driven" decision-making processes.
- The use of technology for group interventions, including counseling, study skills, social skills and support/coping skills groups.
- The use of technology for collaboration and communication among colleagues, more specifically school-based problem solving teams, intervention/assistance teams, curriculum teams, etc.
- The use of technology to promote family/school communication, family involvement, parent education, distance learning opportunities, etc.
- Research-into-practice: This is an important component!
Jul 29, 2006
Dr. Skip Rizzo, a psychologist from USC 's Institute for Creative Technologies, specializes in VR. Dr. Rizzo presented "Gaming for Health: Virtual Reality Game-Based Applications for Mental Disorders and Rehabilitation." at the University of Southern California Games Summit in October 2005. A zipped version of his PowerPoint presentation is available.
According to information from the Integrated Media Systems Center website, "Prof. Rizzo is continuing his collaboration with IMSC investigators and described projects that integrate game technology in the areas of attention process assessment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, pain distraction for children undergoing painful medical procedures and chemotherapy,exposure therapy for returning Iraq War veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder, and motor rehabilitation for persons with central nervous system dysfunction (i.e., stroke, brain injury). According to Rizzo, "the integration of game technology and experiences with virtual reality based approaches for clinical assessment, treatment and rehabilitation offers powerful options that could revolutionize standard practices in these fields."
Dr. Rizzo has been involved in The Virtual Classroom, A VR environment that assesses ADHD in children. For more information regarding the Virtual Classroom, see the full article(pdf).
There is an interesting article for students about the Virtual Classroom, "A Classroom of the Mind", by Emily Sohn, along with related activities, in Science News for Kids.
VR TREATMENT OF ANXIETY DISORDERS
Virtually Better (from website):
"Founded in 1996, Virtually Better is known world wide as an innovator in the creation of virtual reality environments for use in the treatment of anxiety disorders such as fear of flying, fear of heights, fear of public speaking as well as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)... Our on-site clinic is staffed by a team of licensed clinical psychologists devoted to using cognitive-behavioral techniques (including virtual reality exposure therapy) for the treatment of various disorders in both adults and children... Virtually Better grew from the collaborative research of Barbara O. Rothbaum, Ph.D., Associate Professor in Psychiatry, and Director of Trauma and Anxiety Recovery Program at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia and Larry F. Hodges, Ph.D., formerly with the Georgia Institute of Technology, and now Professor and Chair, Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte."
"The Virtual Reality Lab (VRlab), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has a collection of VR demonstrations, including the use of VR for social phobia.
Jul 27, 2006
More of Ron Smith's posts can be found on his blog.
Jul 26, 2006
Mary Burns, in her article, "Thousand Words: Promoting Teachers' Visual Literacy Skills" ( Multimedia and Internet@Schools), provides information for teacher training, recognizing that training teachers to use visual and multimedia technology must first focus on enhancing teacher’s visual literacy skills. (This is important, since many teachers shine in the verbal area and may have under-developed visual literacy skills.)
Michael Lambert and Margaret Carpenter, in their article, Visual Learning: Using Images to Focus Attention, Evoke Emotions, and Enrich Learning, make this observation regarding visual learning:
Learning in the Digital Age Pages 8-13
While gathering resources and reviewing literature over the past few years, I've come across a wide range of people who have an interest in visual and multimedia literacy. I thought I'd share some odds and ends that I found helpful to me as I went along my journey.
One book that has reinforced my thinking is "In the Mind's Eye: Visual Thinkers, Gifted People with Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties, Computer Images, and the Ironies of Creativity", by Thomas G. West. The following quote is from a book review:
"Dr. West argues that major advances in computer information visualization technologies promise to transform education and the workplace— and to increase greatly the value in that transformed world of “visual thinkers with verbal and memory problems who have had to develop methods to sift, sample, and select” in order to understand patterns in complex systems in business, the sciences and other fields." - James Cullin
The following quote is from an article written by Gary Bertoline, the director of Purdue's Envision Center for Data Perceptualization:
“Communicating visually is becoming the norm rather than the exception in technological societies… This renaissance in graphics is coupled with the emerging re-thinking of the role of visualization in basic human intelligence. Converging technologies, a renaissance in graphics, and better understanding of the role of visualization in human cognition are the catalyst for an emerging discipline called visual science.” -Gary R. Bertoline, 1998. Visual Science: An Emerging Discipline Journal for Geometry and Graphics, V 2. 181-187
David Staley, the author of Computers, Visualization, and History: How New Technology Will Transform Our Understanding of the Past, also argues about the importance of visual communication, particularly in his field of history, which has traditionally been taught through reading and discussion:
“…the best visualizations are images that allow one to see, think about and understand multidimensional levels of information that would not have been apparent had it not been so spatially organized.” –Stayley, D. (2002) "Visualization-ism: An art history" Interface: The journal for education, community and values.
Robert E. Mayer is a psychologist who has spent over the past decade studying multimedia learning. This is a quote from his book, “Multimedia Learning”, written in 2001:
“For hundreds of years, verbal messages – such as lectures and printed lessons – have been the primarily means of explaining ideas to learners….Recent advances in graphics technology have prompted new efforts to understand the potential of multimedia as a means of promoting human understanding – a potential that I call the promise of multimedia learning. “ -Mayer, R.E. 2001. Multimedia Learning
As educators, how do we encourage all kinds of learners, especially those who have minds that aren’t considered to be within the mainstream in our mostly word dominant, traditional schools?
“I think in pictures. Words are like a second language to me. I translate both spoken and written words into full-color movies, complete with sound, which run like a VCR tape in my head” She discussed how difficult it was for other people to understand her way of thinking"
Grandin, T. 1995. Thinking in pictures and other reports from my life with autism.
In the decade or so since Grandin wrote this book, there has been a significant increase in the number of students diagnosed as autism spectrum disorders. These young people often require a variety of specialized instructional strategies and support for skill development in areas such as communication and social skills.
We know that the majority of people with autism spectrum disorders are visual learners. We also know that many people who struggle in school are likely to be visual learners/thinkers. Because they learn differently, they are often viewed as having a potential learning disability or attention disorder. The emphasis on "reading to learn" in many classrooms often means that many students are not provided the opportunity to learn subject matter content through other means while they are at school.
“Too many kids struggle and fail needlessly simply because the way in which they learn is incompatible with the way they’re being taught. Schools are filled with kids who give up on themselves, are convinced they’re "losers," and conclude they’re just dumb. It’s painful—for the student, teacher, and parent who may be unaware that the "wiring" of that child’s brain simply is not in synch with the demands and expectations of the situations at hand.” -Mel Levine
“What takes place when a teacher’s ways of teaching clash with a learner’s way of learning? Chaos, discord, accusation, and anger often ensue…In facing these conflicts, should we be trying to rewire the child or instead should we modify the environment and alter our expectations? Or should we do both?” -Levine, M. 2002. A mind at a time. Simon & Schuster, pp.260
If you are a parent of a student who is considered "difficult to teach", you probably have a good understanding of what this post is about.
Some of the content of this post is from a transcript of a podcast that I started for one of my class assignments. A few of the following quotes and comments are from my notes for a paper I wrote in 2004 - "Thinking, Learning, and Communicating through Multimedia: Views from a School Psychologist", which can be found in A sense of place: The global and the local in mobile communication Nyiri,
Jul 25, 2006
This is a link to a post by Josh Thomas (Topics Education) about Mark Wagner's presentation at NECC on the topic of video games and constructivist learning environments. More information about Mark Wagner can be found at EdTechLife.
Jul 12, 2006
Revised Post 8/1/06 Interactive multimedia for social skills, understanding feelings, relaxation and coping strategies, etc.
Link to Pragmatic Language/Social Skills Objectives (North Carolina Department of Public Instruction)
Link to a post about interactive technology (whiteboards, interactive websites, touch screen technologies, tabletop computing, etc.) in my work as a school psychologist in 2010:
(Additional information about multimedia and social skills applications, tips, and strategies can be found on the CITEd website. See my post on the TechPsych blog for links to CITEd resources.)
Here are some interactive applications and games that focus on social skills, coping skills, feelings, stress management, relaxation, communication, attention, or study skills. Multimedia applications present students with experiences that address a variety of modes of learning, communication, and thinking. This can be helpful with students who have more difficulty with traditional word-based counseling techniques.
ITSMYLIFE * is an interactive website for middle-school students. It has video clips, games and related activities on topics such as bullying, dealing with emotions, dealing with crushes, gossip and rumors, divorce, death, time management, test stress, fighting, and more. Streaming video clips on a range of topics are available on this site. Resources are provided on-line for teachers and parents. The activities on this website are appropriate for classroom guidance, small group counseling/ intervention, and for "homework". The website also includes several interactive games. The activities are engaging when presented via an interactive white board. Good potential for social-emotional intervention/prevention research.
Facial Expression Game
Resources for students, parents, and teachers. Focuses on activities suitable for students with Asperger-Autism spectrum disorders, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effect, and related disorders. Offers free online activities as well as affordable interactive applications. Many activities are useful for younger students in regular education settings and would work for small group support as well as in classrooms using an interactive whiteboard. A good site to use when consulting with new teachers about intervention strategies. Do2Learn links to information regarding various disabilities. Do2Learn's early work with Virtual Reality helped young children with autism learn street crossing. These games are available on the internet for free.
"Ripple Effects for Teens (grades 6-10) addresses social, emotional and learning needs with individualized guidance in 390 areas.” “Ripple Effects For Kids (grades 3-5) prevents bullying, builds character, promotes healthy behavior and academic success with over 140 reading independent tutorials.” Ripple Effects also offers "Teaching Coach" for staff development. Download an 8 minute video clip overview of Ripple Effects software here.
Free and low-cost on-line games: "Life Experience through Simulations" and "Online Negotiation games" Suitable for high school students for teaching social skills needed for the workplace, community, and relationships. Some of the applications are used for training attorneys, agrologists, and business workers. Simulations could be used in work/life planning classes, conflict resolution, and transition planning.
Eye Spy Wham! Grow your Chi
"Kar2ouche Composer is a highly creative and interactive multimedia authoring tool. It helps students develop contextual understanding, critical interpretation and individual expression through a wide range of creative activities, including interactive role-play, picture-making, storyboarding, animation, publishing and movie-making.”
"MediaStage provides students of all abilities with a creative simulation environment that has all the engagement of the best computer game but puts creative and collaborative learning at its core. MediaStage stimulates students into new ways of thinking about the interactions between characters and people through its use of 3D role-playing simulations. Students can express their own thoughts as if others were expressing them and then mediate these thoughts in empathic ways which are sensitive both to audience and performer. Students can also use MediaStage to design virtual performances that include subtleties of expression through the body language of characters, their proximity to each other and their juxtaposition, as well as their movements and interactions with props and stage settings.”
"Immersive Education has substantial evidence which demonstrates how its software and support materials are leading to significant benefits in the traditional classroom environment. These include:
- Better classroom performance and increased pupil motivation and attention
- Inclusion for children of all abilities in understanding difficult texts and concepts
- New ways for teachers to involve children in learning where software is used as an integrated part of an overall teaching solution extending teachers' creative computer skills leading to wider use of computing in the classroom."
Relax to Win is appropriate for students who have difficulty coping with stress or anxiety. The game is available as a PC game as well as for the smaller screen of a SmartPhone or newer cell phone. It comes with a bio-sensing feedback device. The more relaxed the user, the better the outcome of the game. Research regarding Relax to Win has shown that it is effective. It has not been researched in
BreakAway Games produced Free Dive, in collaboration with others. Free Dive a 3-D game found to reduce the need for pain medication among children undergoing painful medical treatments, such as chemotherapy. Click here for a short video about Free Dive.
"On-line relaxation "game": I really feel like I'm flying around in this space and the notion of 'tranquility' and how it really is needed in order to master the game is something I find extremely cool." Tranquility is similar in principle to the "Cloud" game. This game could be included in interventions for students who have anxiety and related disorders.
Jun 17, 2006
This extensive, free resource works well with in situations such as peer-tutoring, small group instruction, and home learning interventions. Good potential for reading intervention research, also for interventions/support for ELL students. Impressive on an interactive whiteboard. From the website: "“Starfall's online reading programs, together with Starfall's printed materials, are available free from our website as a public service. The website is easy to access and does not require special software to operate. Our printed materials are available for download free of charge. Starfall's educational objectives are consistent with the findings of National Research Council in their report on Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children."
EDUTOPIA ARTICLE ABOUT TECHNOLOGY AND READING - "Tech Teaches"
Lexia provides interactive software applications for reading. A Spanish version is available. The Lexia Cross-Trainer provides interactive games to develop visual-spatial problem -solving skills. For more information, visit the Lexia products link and the support library.
LITERACY RESOURCES FOR SPECIAL NEEDS
Resources from UConn to support reading and writing for students with special needs.
NORTH CENTRAL REGIONAL LIBRARY ARTICLE ON TECHNOLOGY AND LITERACY - "Critical Issue: Using Technology to Enhance Literacy Instruction
Good resources for reading materials. Includes biographical information about various authors. According to the website: "Our website offers thousands of free books for students, teachers, and the classic enthusiast."
From the website: "This technology provides interactive, 3D animated characters that communicate through body language (including gesture, signs, and facial expression), lip-synched speech, and action. Their embedded behaviors reflect each character‚’s individual personality, and makes them appealing and lifelike."
"A striking increase in attention span, their level of engagement, and results. During an evaluation at the
May 20, 2006
Another resource is the FunBrain website. This site is a repository of learning games for students in grades K-8. The teacher resources page includes links to curriculum guides and McREL standards. There is also a parent resource page.
Keep up with news about engaged learning by subscribing to the newsletters from Edutopia. An article and short video about high school students studying animation with the support of professional animators through video-conferencing was recently added to the site.
Apr 18, 2006
Resources for All: Supporting UDL, RTI, Visual and Multimedia Literacy, Project-Based Learning, Learning with Mobile Devices
In this post, I've consolidated information and updated links and resources from some previous posts from my TechPsych and Interactive Multimedia Technology blogs. Although many of the resources cited in this post relate to K-12 education, some of the information is useful for instructional designers, school administrators, researchers, college/university educators, parents, and technologists who are interested in developing interactive multimedia applications for children and teens.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Planning for All Learners
Universal Design for Learning incorporates differentiated instruction, addressing visual learning and other means of academic engagement through the use of media technology, including project-based learning. The concepts of Universal Design for Learning fit with Response to Intervention (RTI), universal prevention/intervention, and instructional consultation/ problem-solving teams. For those who are considering this approach, plan on spending time exploring this Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) website.
The Planning for All Learners section provides resources such as lesson plan examples and planning charts that provide teachers a way of representing the specific needs of each student.
CAST offers the on-line interactive book, Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning.
This book is a good resource for staff development activities. Plan on spending a good bit of time on this site!
EDUTOPIA: The George Lucas Foundation
The Edutopia website provides "..detailed articles, in-depth case studies, research summaries, instructional modules, short documentary segments, expert interviews, and links to hundreds of relevant resources."
The Technology integration link. provides resources for teachers, staff development, including video segments that cover technology integration, project based learning, school-to-career, the use of multimedia for emotional intelligence activities, and more.
Visual learning software: "Learning to think. Learning to learn. These are the essential skills for student success. Research in both educational theory and cognitive psychology tells us that visual learning is among the very best methods for teaching students of all ages how to think, and how to learn." Many school districts have adopted Kidspiration and Inspiration; there are many resources for teacher support for this software. Effective with visual learners and works well for paired and small group activities. Potential for intervention and "engagement" research.
Many school districts have adopted Kidspiration and Inspiration; there are many resources on the website for teacher support for this software. Inspiration and Kidspiration are effective with visual learners. These applications work well on large-screen displays as well as P.C.'s, and are good for paired and small group activities.
Inspiration now offers a visual data analysis application, InspireData.
I SUPPORT LEARNING
“Our mission is to empower educators in their quest to create and support life-long learners, to make education relevant and engaging for the student through creative software.” I Support Learning provides applications for creative, interactive project-based activities for middle and high school students that integrate the use of technology and build technology skills."
I Support Learning's Personal Experience Curricula
CARTOON ANIMATION VIDEO GAME DESIGN MUSIC VIDEO PRODUCTION WEB GAME DESIGN
PERSONAL FINANCE AND WEALTH MANAGEMENT BUILDING GREEN – RESIDENTIAL HOME DESIGN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND MOBILE ROBOTICS GREEN INDUSTRY – LANDSCAPE DESIGN ROBOTS AND INVENTION HORTICULTURE AND LANDSCAPE DESIGN
HANDHELD AND MOBILE DEVICES FOR LEARNING
There are some classrooms in that do not use textbooks. Textbooks are provided to students electronically on their PDA's. Some versions of electronic textbooks are interactive and include hypertext links to supplemental information or activities. Students who use Wi-Fi enabled PDA's have access to interactive websites that compliment what they are learning in class.
In most classrooms that use this form for instruction, students often work in pairs and groups. Because PDA's run many of the same applications as do PC's, they can be utilized for frequent monitoring and charting of progress. Here are a few resources:"Our classroom uses Windows CE and Pocket PC based Personal Digital Assistants (we call them PDA's.) We are running a paperless classroom with the PDA's. All homework and reading assignments are done on the PDA's. We do not use copied ditto sheets or heavy textbooks. All of this is accomplished in a 7th and 8th Grade Language Arts class, not in a math or science classroom."
This is a good example of how a teacher, a "rookie" during the 1998-99 school year, embraced new and effective ways of using technology to meet the needs of a diverse range of learners in the middle school setting for Language Arts instruction. This website has expanded to include a range of resources for educators interested in learning how to implement paperless classrooms. Research in this area can be found through HiCe and related organizations.
HICE: Center for Highly Interactive Computing in Education
HiCe provides consultation and resources for schools regarding the use of handheld devices in learning environments. The work of the HiCe project at the University of Michigan has been in place for over a decade.."With PDA's, students can access websites created by their teachers to keep track of assignments and upload or e-mail assignments when completed. Software on PDA's such as calendars and an alarm can help students who have organization problems."
A spin-off of the HiCe project is GOKNOW.
Moop was developed in
"Through Moop, a pupil makes observations and saves and manages information in the mobile and network learning platform. The learning environment supports the process of inquiry learning, during which a pupil outlines his or her thoughts on the current topic, collects information and observations from the surroundings and reports the findings in the network-learning environment. Moop project is based on needs of schools and teachers: the traditional learning environment is broadened from classroom to observation in the surroundings"
Mattila, P. & Fordell, T. (2005) MOOP- Using m-learning environment in primary schools. http://www.mlearn.org.za/CD/papers/Mattila.pdf
Mattila, P. (2005) Moop - Mobile Learning Environment as Part of Daily School Work
Quote from the project website:
"…the user group has expanded to encompass people of all ages, from grandparents getting involved in family learning, adults looking to improve their employment prospects, to pregnant teenagers needing health advice and guidance." Website has demos of software and links to references and resources, along with video clips useful for presentations.
Also see: M-LEARNOPEDIA
OTHER RESOURCES FOR INTEGRATING HAND-HELDS INTO EDUCATION:
INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARDS AND LARGE-SCREEN DISPLAYS
This company produces interactive whiteboards, which allows educators to bring the touch screen to the wide screen in their classrooms.
According to WISC, learning objects are web-based, self-contained chunks of learning, small enough to be embedded in a learning activity, lesson, unit, or course, are flexible, portable, and adaptable, and can be used in multiple learning environments and across disciplines.MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
Quotes from users of learning objects:
"Reading something in a book, I may not get the concept. So as I go through it on the screen, I can see how the different things work...for an example , one of the classes I had , that had a CD and a learning object with it, I actually passed the test, got a 100%, because I was able to go over it. The way it was on screen, was completely different than how I had memorized in my head." - Holly Davidson, Student
Like Merlot, WISC provides interactive learning objects geared primarily for higher education. Learning objects incorporated into instruction provide students with multiple paths to gaining knowledge, consistent with the principles of Universal Design for Learning.